Munur á milli breytinga „Lágþýska“

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[[Image:Low Saxon language area.png|thumb|180px|Lágþýskt málasvæði]]
{{Athygli|greinin er á ensku}}
'''Lágþýska''' (einnig '''Niðursaxneska''' eða '''plattþýska''') er [[germanskt tungumál|germönsk tungumál]]. Hið opinbera heiti tungumálsins á lágþýsku er'''nederdüütsch''' . Lágþýska er [[vesturgermanst tungumál|vesturgermönsk]] tungumál og skylt ensku,frísnesku, hollensku og afríkönsku(tungumál búa í S-Afríku).
|nafn2=Plattdüütsch, Nedderdüütsch
|svæði=[[Sambandslýðveldið Þýskaland]], [[Konungsríkið Holland]]
|talendur=3 milljónir manns nota málið sem móðumál, um það bil 10 milljónir skilja það.
|ætt2=[[Germanskt tungumál|Germanskt]]
|ætt3=[[Vestgermönsk tungumál|Vesturgermanska]]
|þjóð=[[Þýskaland og Holland]]
Þessi tungumál eiga öll uppruna sinn er hinu forna saxneska tungumáli.
'''Low German''' (also called '''Plattdeutsch''', '''Plattdüütsch''' or '''Low Saxon''') is a name for the [[regional language]] varieties of the [[Low Germanic languages]] spoken mainly in northern [[Germany]], and eastern [[Netherlands]]. Also, there are some speakers in the coastal areas of [[Poland]], and immigrant communities in several places of the world, for instance in [[Canada]]. In the Southern [[Jutland]] region of [[Denmark]] there may still be some Low German speakers in some [[German as a minority language|German minority]] communities, but the Low German and [[North Frisian language|North Frisian]] dialects of [[Denmark]] ought to be considered moribund, if not extinct, at this time.
Tungumálin hafa öll þróast á sinn hátt en mörg orð eru þó eins í engilsaxnesku(fornensku), nútímaensku, skosku(germansk mál) og lágþýsku.
The [[ISO 639]]-2 language code for Low German is '''nds''' since May 2000.
There are three different uses of the term “Low German”:
#A specific name of any [[West Germanic languages|West Germanic]] [[variety (linguistics)|varieties]] that have neither taken part in the [[High German consonant shift]] nor classify as [[Low Franconian languages|Low Franconian]] or [[Anglo-Frisian languages|Anglo-Frisian]]; this is the scope discussed in this article.
#A broader term for the entire West Germanic [[language family]] unaffected by the High Germanic sound shift, thus including Low Franconian varieties such as [[Dutch language|Dutch]]; for this use, see [[Low Germanic languages]].
#A non-specific term for any non-[[standard language|standard]] variety of [[German language|German]]; this use is only found in Germany and is considered not to be [[linguistics|linguistic]].
Many people in Northern [[Germany]] are unaware that Low German does not abruptly stop at the German-Netherlands border but continues on into the Eastern [[Netherlands]]. Among those who ''are'' aware of it, a measure of estrangement (especially [[Dutch language|Dutch]] versus [[German language|German]] influences and [[Dutch language|Dutch]] versus [[German language|German]] based spelling), besides alleged sensitivities remaining from the German occupation in [[World War II]], is often used as an argument in favor of ignoring the dialects of the [[Netherlands]]. The general attitude among Low German speakers in the [[Netherlands]], however, is that the [[Dutch Low Saxon|Dutch Low German]] varieties belong to a continuum with the Low German varieties of Northern [[Germany]], many Low German speakers in the [[Netherlands]] are willing and happy to participate in activities organized on the German side of the border, and Netherlanders have won prizes in Low German literature contests in [[Germany]].
==Official status==
Since [[1999]], Low German has been recognised by Germany as a [[regional language]] according to the [[European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages]].
Low German is not standardized. In Germany, however, [[Northern Low Saxon]] serves as a common intelligible language in [[Television|TV]] and [[Wireless]] programmes.
==Classification and related languages==
Low German is a part of the [[West Germanic languages|West Germanic]] [[dialect continuum]].
To the West, it fades to the [[Low Franconian languages]] which distinguish two plural verbal endings, opposed to a common verbal plural ending in Low German.
To the South, it fades to the [[High Germanic languages|High Germanic]] dialects of [[Central German]] that have been affected by the [[High German consonant shift]]. The division is usually drawn at the [[Benrath line]] that traces the ''maken – machen'' [[isogloss]].
To the East, it is neighboured by the [[Kashubian language]] (the only remnant of the [[Pomeranian language]]) and, since increased Polonization of [[Pomerania]], also by the [[Polish language]].
To the North and Northwest, it is neighboured by the [[Danish language]] and by the [[Frisian language]]. Note that in Germany, Low German has replaced the Frisian in many regions. The [[Saterland Frisian language|Saterland Frisian]] is the only remnant of East Frisian language and is, outside [[East Frisia]] surrounded by Low German, as are the few remaining [[North Frisian language|North Frisian]] varieties, and the Low German dialects of those regions have Frisian influences on account of Frisian substrates.
Some classify the northern dialects of Low German together with [[English language|English]], [[Scots language|Scots]] and [[Frisian language|Frisian]] as the ''[[North Sea]] Germanic'' or ''[[Ingaevones|Ingvaeonic]]'' languages. However, most exclude Low German from that group often called [[Anglo-Frisian languages]] because some distinctive features of that group of languages are only partially observed in Low German, for instance the [[Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law]] (some dialects have ''us'', ''os'' for ‘us’ whereas others have ''uns'', ''ons''), and because other distinctive features do not occur in Low German at all, for instance the [[palatalization]] of /k/ (compare palatalized forms such as English ''cheese'', Frisian ''tsiis'' to non-palatalized forms such as Low German ''Kaise'', Dutch ''kaas'', German ''Käse'').
==Varieties of Low German==
===In Germany===
*[[West Low German]]
**[[Northern Low Saxon]]
**[[Westphalian language]]
**[[Eastphalian language]]
*[[East Low German]]
**[[East Pomeranian]]
**[[Low Prussian]]
**[[Plautdietsch]] ([[Mennonite]] Low German, used also in many other countries)
===In the Netherlands===
The [[Dutch Low Saxon|Low German varieties in the Netherlands]], which are also defined as Dutch dialects, consist of:
* [[Kollumerlands]]
* [[Gronings]]
** [[Noord-Gronings]]
** [[Stadsgronings]]
** [[Westerwolds]]
* [[Stellingwerfs]]
** [[Veenkoloniaals]]
* [[Drents]]
** [[Noord-Drents]]
** [[Midden-Drents]]
** [[Zuid-Drents]]
* [[Twents (dialect)|Twents]]
** [[Twents-Graafschaps]]
* [[Gelderland|Gelders]]-[[Overijssel]]s
** [[Achterhoeks]]
** [[Sallands]]
** [[Urks]]
* [[Veluws]]
** [[Noord-Veluws]]
** [[Oost-Veluws]]
There are several Low-German-speaking communities outside [[Europe]]. [[Mennonite]] communities use their [[Plautdietsch]] everywhere they live, especially in [[Russia]], [[Ukraine]], [[Central Asia]], [[Germany]] and the [[Americas]]. Furthermore, there are communities in the [[Midwest]] of the [[United States]], some of them with their own [[dialect]]s that developed from [[dialect]]s imported from [[Schleswig-Holstein]] and [[Lower Saxony]] in the [[19th century]]. There may be some remaining speakers or speaker communities in Northern [[Poland]] and in Southern [[Denmark]], where the Low German language is at best moribund.
[[Old Saxon]] was the ancestor of the Low Saxon varieties of Low German, recorded from about [[800]] to [[1100]].
[[Middle Low German]] was the ancestor of Low German recorded from about [[1100]] to [[1500]]. It was the [[lingua franca]] of the [[Hanseatic League]], used all around the [[North Sea]] and the [[Baltic Sea]], exerting strong influences on local languages, especially on the [[Scandinavian languages]], on [[Kashubian]] and on [[Estonian]].
Like [[Middle Dutch]], [[Middle Saxon]] (or “[[Middle Low German]]”), the lingua franca of the [[Hanseatic League]], exerted some influence on [[Middle English]] by way of maritime trade. Borrowed words include “trade” and “mate”. In some cases, such as “boss” (''baas'' in both Dutch and Low Saxon), it is not clear if a Low German loanword in [[English language|English]] came from [[Middle Dutch]] or from [[Middle Saxon]], since many words are alike in these two closely related languages.
==Sound Change==
Low German has commonality with the [[English language]], the [[North Germanic language|Scandinavian]] languages and [[Frisian language|Frisian]] in that it has not been influenced by the High Germanic consonant shift except for old {{IPA|/ð/}} having shifted to /d/. Therefore a lot of Low German words sound similar to their English counterparts.
For instance: ''water'' {{IPA|[wɒtɜ, watɜ, wætɜ]}}, ''later'' {{IPA|[lɒːtɜ, laːtɜ, læːtɜ]}}, ''bit'' {{IPA|[bɪt]}}, ''dish'' {{IPA|[dis, diʃ]}}, ''ship'' {{IPA|[ʃɪp, skɪp, sxɪp]}}, ''pull'' {{IPA|[pʊl]}}, ''good'' {{IPA|[gout, ɣɑut, ɣuːt]}}, ''clock'' {{IPA|[klɔk]}}, ''sail'' {{IPA|[sɑil]}}, ''he'' {{IPA|[hɛi, hɑi, hi(j)]}}, ''storm'' {{IPA|[stoːrm]}}, ''wind'' {{IPA|[vɪˑnt]}}, ''grass'' {{IPA|[gras, ɣras]}}, ''hold'' {{IPA|[hoˑʊl(t)]}}, ''old'' {{IPA|[oˑʊl(t)]}}.
The table below shows the relationship between English and Low German consonants which were unaffected by the [[High German consonant shift]] and gives the modern [[German language|German]] counterparts, which were affected by the sound shift.
{| class="wikitable"
|- bgcolor=#FFDEAD
! '''Low Germanic'''
! '''High Germanic'''
! '''Low German'''
! '''Dutch'''
! '''English'''
! '''German'''
| k || ch || maken || maken || to make|| machen
| d || t || Dag || dag || day || Tag
| t || ss || eten || eten || eat || essen
| t || z (/ts/) || teihn || tien || ten || zehn
| t || tz, z (/ts/) || sitten || zitten || sit || sitzen
| p || f, ff || Schipp || schip || ship || Schiff
| p || pf || Peper || peper || pepper || Pfeffer
| v, w, f (/v/) || b || Wief, Wiewer || wijf, wijven ¹ || wife, wives || Weib, Weiber
¹The correct translation for "wife" in Dutch is "vrouw", using ''wijf'' against a human is considered derogative, and comparable to "[[bitch]]".
Generally speaking, Low German [[grammar]] shows similarities with the [[grammar]]s of [[Dutch language|Dutch]], [[Frisian]], [[English language|English]] and [[Scots]], but the [[dialect]]s of Northern [[Germany]] share some features (especially [[lexicon|lexical]] and [[syntax|syntactic]] features) with [[German language|German]] dialects.
Low German [[declension]] has only three morphologically marked [[noun]] cases, where [[accusative]] and [[dative]] together constitute an [[objective]] case.
|+Example case marking: ''Boom'' (tree), ''Bloom'' (flower), ''Land'' (land)
! rowspan="2" |   !! colspan="2" | Masculine !! colspan="2" | Feminine !! colspan="2" | Neuter
! Singular !! Plural !! Singular !! Plural !! Singular !! Plural
| een Boom, '''de''' Boom || Bööm, de Bööm || een Bloom, de Bloom || Blomen, de Blomen || een Land, dat Land || Lannen, de Lannen
| '''vun''' een/'''den''' Boom, '''den''' Boom '''sien''' || '''vun''' (de) Bööm, (de) Bööm '''ehr''' || '''vun''' een/de Bloom, de Bloom '''ehr''' || '''vun''' (de) Blomen, (de) Blomen '''ehr''' || '''vun''' (dat) Land, (dat) Land '''sien''' || '''vun''' (de) Lannen, (de) Lannen '''ehr'''
| een Boom, '''den''' Boom || Bööm, de Bööm || een Bloom, de Bloom || Blomen, de Blomen || een Land, dat Land || Lannen, de Lannen
In most modern dialects, marking differences are minimal between the [[nominative]] case and the [[Objective (grammar)|objective]] case, and it tends to affect only [[masculine]] [[noun]]s in the [[singular]].Thus case marking in Low German is simpler than in [[German language|German]].
In Low German verbs are conjugated for person, number and tense. Verb conjugation for person is only differentiated in the singular. There are five tenses in Low German: [[Present tense]], [[Preterite]], [[Perfect tense|Perfect]], [[Pluperfect tense|Past Perfect]], and [[Future tense|Future]].
|+Example verb conjugation: slapen - to sleep
! rowspan="2" |   !! colspan="2" | Present !! colspan="2" | Preterite !! colspan="2" | Perfect
! Singular !! Plural !! Singular !! Plural !! Singular !! Plural
!1st Person
| ik slaap || wi slaapt/slapen || ik sleep || wi slepen || ik hebb slapen || wi hebbt/hebben slapen
!2nd Person
| du slöppst || ji slaapt/slapen || du sleepst || ji slepen || du hest slapen || ji hebbt/hebben slapen
!3rd Person
| he, se, dat slöppt || se slaapt/slapen || he, se, dat sleep || se slepen ||he, se, dat hett slapen || se hebbt/hebben slapen
Unlike [[Dutch language|Dutch]], [[German language|German]] and southern Low German, the northern dialects form the participle without the prefix ''ge-'', like the [[Scandinavian languages]] and [[English language|English]]. Compare to the German past [[participle]] '''ge'''schlafen. This past [[particple]] is formed with the [[auxiliary verb]] ''hebben'' 'to have'. It should be noted that ''e-'' is used instead of ''ge-'' in most Southern (below [[Groningen]] in the [[Netherlands]]) [[dialect]]s, though often not when the past [[participle]] ends with ''-en'' or in a few often used words like ''west'' (been).
The reason for the two conjugations shown in the plural is regional: dialects in the central area use -t while the dialects in [[East Frisia]] and the dialects in [[Mecklenberg]] and further east use -en. The -en suffix is of Dutch influence.
The [[syntax]] on the other hand is more like German syntax, though there are some differences.
==Writing system==
Low German is written using the [[Latin alphabet]]. There is no true standard [[orthography]], only several locally more or less accepted orthographic guidelines, those in the [[Netherlands]] mostly based on [[Dutch language|Dutch]] [[orthography]], and those in [[Germany]] mostly based on German [[orthography]]. This diversity—being the result of centuries of official neglect and suppression—has a very fragmenting and thus weakening effect on the language as a whole, since it has created barriers that do not exist on the spoken level. Interregional and international communication is severely hampered by this. Having been created by persons with little or no phonological understanding, most of these systems aim at representing the [[phonetic]] ([[allophone|allophonic]]) output rather than underlying ([[phoneme|phonemic]]) representations, thus call for superfluous and confusing detail. Furthermore, many writers follow guidelines only roughly. This adds numerous idiosyncratic and often inconsistent ways of spelling to the already existing great orthographic diversity.
The Low German greeting formula ''[[Moin]]'' and its duplication ''[[MoinMoin]]'' gave the name for the WikiWiki MoinMoin Project
There are plans to create a computer vocabulary for Low German in order to translate Desktop environments such as [[KDE]] and [[GNOME]]. []
==See also==
* [[Moin]]
There is a lot of information about Low German to be found online. A selection of these links can be found on this page, which will provide a good frame work to understand the history, current situation and features of the language.
* [ What is Low Saxon?] An introduction article to Low German;
* [ Ethnologue report for Low Saxon] (kind of unprecise, but Ethnologue are not planning an update any time soon)
* [ List of links], provided by the Lowlands List;
* [], information in and about various Low German dialects;
* [ Nu is de Welt platt!] All known resources in and about Low German;
* [ Niederdeutsch/Plattdeutsch in Westfalen], by Olaf Bordasch;
* [ Mönsterlänner Plat], by Klaus-Werner Kahl;
* [ Tizárrio's Veluywse websyde], by Tizáriio Ilaino;
* [ Plattdeutsch heute], by
* [ Van Deinse Instituut] (Twente, the Netherlands)
* [ IJsselacademie] (Overijssel and Veluwe, the Netherlands)
* [ Staring Instituut] (Achterhoek, the Netherlands)
* [ Oostfreeske Taal] (Eastern Friesland, Germany)
* [ Drentse Taol] (Drenthe, the Netherlands)
* [ Stichting Stellingwarver Schrieversronte] (Friesland, the Netherlands)
* [ SONT] (General, the Netherlands)
* [ Institut für niederdeutsche Sprache e.V.] (General, Germany)
If your organisation isn't listed here, feel free to add it.
* [ Gertrud Everding] (Northern Low Saxon - Hamburg, Germany)
* [ Marlou Lessing] (Northern Low Saxon - Hamburg, Germany)
* [ Clara Kramer-Freudenthal] (Northern Low Saxon - Norderstedt, Germany)
* [ Johan Veenstra] (Stellingwarfs - Friesland, the Netherlands)
* [ Skik] (Drents/Dutch - Drenthe, the Netherlands)
* [ Jan Cornelius] (East Frisian - Ostfriesland, Germany)
* [ Törf] (Gronings - Groningen, the Netherlands)
* [ Eltje Doddema] (Veenkoloniaals - Groningen, the Netherlands)
* [ Boh foi toch] (Achterhoeks - Gelderland, the Netherlands)
'''Unorganized links:'''
[[Category:Low Germanic languages]]
[[ca:Baix alemany]]
[[eo:Platgermana lingvo]]
[[hr:Donjenjemački jezik]]
[[hu:Alnémet nyelv]]
[[it:Lingua basso-tedesca]]
[[pl:Język dolnoniemiecki]]
[[ro:Germana joasă]]
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