„Spænska“: Munur á milli breytinga

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== Stofnanir ==
=== Konunglega spænska akademían ===
[[Konunglega spænska akademían]] (spænska: ''Real Academia Española'') var stofnuð árið 1713 til að staðla spænskt ritmál.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.lib.uwaterloo.ca/society/history/1713rae.html |title=Scholarly Societies Project |publisher=Lib.uwaterloo.ca |access-date=6 November 2010 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100923234545/http://www.lib.uwaterloo.ca/society/history/1713rae.html |archive-date=23 September 2010 }}</ref> Hún hefur áhrif á staðlað spænskt málsnið með útgáfu orðabóka og útbreiddra handbóka um málfræði og stíl.<ref>{{cite book|last=Batchelor|first=Ronald Ernest|title=Using Spanish: a guide to contemporary usage|year=1992|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=0-521-26987-3|page=318|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=eEWZL1j9ig8C&q=real+academia+espa%C3%B1ola+recognized&pg=PA4}}</ref> [[Stöðluð spænska]] er almennt notuð sem bókmenntamál, fræðimál og fjölmiðlamál.
 
=== Samtök spænskuakademía ===
[[File:Países con Academia de la Lengua Española.svg|thumb|Lönd með akademíur sem eru aðilar að ASALE.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.asale.org/ASALE/asale.html |title=Association of Spanish Language Academies |language=es |publisher=Asale |access-date=5 February 2011 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100923155313/http://asale.org/ASALE/asale.html |archive-date=23 September 2010 }}</ref>]]
[[Samtök spænskuakademía]] ({{lang|es|Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española}}, eða ASALE) eru samtök sem staðla spænsku á heimsvísu. Þau voru stofnuð í Mexíkó árið 1951 sem samtök spænskuakademía í spænskumælandi löndum heims. Akademíur 23 landa eiga aðild að samtökunum, eftir stofnári: [[Real Academia Española]] á Spáni (1713),<ref>{{cite web|location=Spain |url=http://www.rae.es/rae/gestores/gespub000001.nsf/voTodosporId/CEDF300E8D943D3FC12571360037CC94?OpenDocument&i=0 |title=Real Academia Española |publisher=RAE |access-date=6 November 2010 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100929155935/http://www.rae.es/rae/gestores/gespub000001.nsf/voTodosporId/CEDF300E8D943D3FC12571360037CC94?OpenDocument&i=0 |archive-date=29 September 2010 }}</ref> [[Academia Colombiana de la Lengua]] í Kólumbíu (1871),<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.asale.org/ASALE/ConAALEBD?IDDOC=30202&menu=2 |title=Academia Colombiana de la Lengua |language=es |location=Colombia |access-date=5 February 2011 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080219034313/http://asale.org/ASALE/ConAALEBD?IDDOC=30202&menu=2 |archive-date=19 February 2008 }}</ref> [[Academia Ecuatoriana de la Lengua]] í Ekvador (1874),<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.asale.org/ASALE/ConAALEBD?IDDOC=30302&menu=2 |title=Academia Ecuatoriana de la Lengua |language=es |location=Ecuador |access-date=5 February 2011 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110527091026/http://asale.org/ASALE/ConAALEBD?IDDOC=30302&menu=2 |archive-date=27 May 2011 }}</ref> [[Academia Mexicana de la Lengua]] í Mexíkó (1875),<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.academia.org.mx/historia.php |title=Academia Mexicana de la Lengua |location=Mexico |date=22 September 2010 |access-date=6 November 2010 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100915092057/http://academia.org.mx/historia.php |archive-date=15 September 2010 }}</ref> [[Academia Salvadoreña de la Lengua]] í El Salvador (1876),<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.asl.org.sv/Informacion%20institucional.htm |title=Academia Salvadoreña de la Lengua |location=El Salvador |access-date=5 February 2011 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110904125413/http://www.asl.org.sv/Informacion%20institucional.htm |archive-date=4 September 2011 }}</ref> [[Academia Venezolana de la Lengua]] í Venesúela (1883),<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.asale.org/ASALE/ConAALEBD?IDDOC=30602&menu=2 |title=Academia Venezolana de la Lengua |language=es |location=Venezuela |access-date=5 February 2011 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110527090728/http://asale.org/ASALE/ConAALEBD?IDDOC=30602&menu=2 |archive-date=27 May 2011 }}</ref> [[Academia Chilena de la Lengua]] í Chile (1885),<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.institutodechile.cl/lengua/resena.htm |title=Academia Chilena de la Lengua |location=Chile |access-date=6 November 2010 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100905085434/http://www.institutodechile.cl/lengua/resena.htm |archive-date=5 September 2010 }}</ref> [[Academia Peruana de la Lengua]] í Perú (1887),<ref>{{cite web |url= http://www.academiaperuanadelalengua.org/academia/historia |title= Academia Peruana de la Lengua |location= Peru |access-date= 6 November 2010 |url-status=dead |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20101012010318/http://academiaperuanadelalengua.org/academia/historia |archive-date= 12 October 2010 |df= dmy-all }}</ref> [[Academia Guatemalteca de la Lengua]] í Gvatemala (1887),<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.asale.org/ASALE/ConAALEBD?IDDOC=30902&menu=2 |title=Academia Guatemalteca de la Lengua |language=es |location=Guatemala |access-date=5 February 2011 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080804011930/http://asale.org/ASALE/ConAALEBD?IDDOC=30902&menu=2 |archive-date=4 August 2008 }}</ref> [[Academia Costarricense de la Lengua]] í Kosta Ríka (1923),<ref>{{cite web | url = http://www.acl.ac.cr/i_q.php | title = Academia Costarricense de la Lengua | location = Costa Rica | access-date = 6 November 2010 | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20100323194028/http://www.acl.ac.cr/i_q.php | archive-date = 23 March 2010 | url-status = live }}</ref> [[Academia Filipina de la Lengua Española]] á Filippseyjum (1924),<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.asale.org/ASALE/ConAALEBD?IDDOC=31102&menu=2 |title=Academia Filipina de la Lengua Española |language=es |publisher=Philippines |access-date=5 February 2011 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110527090616/http://asale.org/ASALE/ConAALEBD?IDDOC=31102&menu=2 |archive-date=27 May 2011 }}</ref> [[Academia Panameña de la Lengua]] í Panama (1926),<ref>{{cite web |url = http://apalengua.apalengua.org/historia |title = Academia Panameña de la Lengua |location = Panama |access-date = 6 November 2010 |archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20101129171943/http://apalengua.apalengua.org/historia |archive-date = 29 November 2010 |url-status = dead }}</ref> [[Academia Cubana de la Lengua]] á Kúbu (1926),<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.acul.ohc.cu/ |title=Academia Cubana de la Lengua |location=Cuba |access-date=6 November 2010 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20101219083212/http://www.acul.ohc.cu/ |archive-date=19 December 2010 |url-status=live }}</ref>
[[Academia Paraguaya de la Lengua Española]] í Paragvæ (1927),<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.aparle.org/origenes.asp |title=Academia Paraguaya de la Lengua Española |location=Paraguay |access-date=5 February 2011 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110728150336/http://www.aparle.org/origenes.asp |archive-date=28 July 2011 }}</ref> [[Academia Dominicana de la Lengua]] í Dóminíska lýðveldinu (1927),<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.academia.org.do/content/blogsection/12/46/ |title=Academia Dominicana de la Lengua |location=República Dominicana |access-date=5 February 2011 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20101222161225/http://www.academia.org.do/content/blogsection/12/46/ |archive-date=22 December 2010 }}</ref> [[Academia Boliviana de la Lengua]] í Bólivíu (1927),<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.abolen.org/Historia.html |title=Academia Boliviana de la Lengua |location=Bolivia |access-date=5 February 2011 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20101129201058/http://www.abolen.org/Historia.html |archive-date=29 November 2010 }}</ref> [[Academia Nicaragüense de la Lengua]] í Níkaragva (1928),<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.asale.org/ASALE/ConAALEBD?IDDOC=31702&menu=2 |title=Academia Nicaragüense de la Lengua |language=es |publisher=Nicaragua |access-date=5 February 2011 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110527090719/http://asale.org/ASALE/ConAALEBD?IDDOC=31702&menu=2 |archive-date=27 May 2011 }}</ref> [[Academia Argentina de Letras]] í Argentínu (1931),<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.letras.edu.ar/ |title=Academia Argentina de Letras |location=Argentina |date=25 March 2010 |access-date=5 February 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110728121808/http://www.letras.edu.ar/ |archive-date=28 July 2011 |url-status=live }}</ref> [[Academia Nacional de Letras, del Uruguay]] í Úrúgvæ (1943),<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mec.gub.uy/academiadeletras/MarcoPrincipal.htm |title=Academia Nacional de Letras del Uruguay |location=Uruguay |access-date=5 February 2011 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110319235222/http://www.mec.gub.uy/academiadeletras/MarcoPrincipal.htm |archive-date=19 March 2011 }}</ref> [[Academia Hondureña de la Lengua]] í Hondúras (1949),<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.asale.org/ASALE/ConAALEBD?IDDOC=32002&menu=2 |title=Academia Hondureña de la Lengua |language=es |location=Honduras |access-date=5 February 2011 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110527085850/http://asale.org/ASALE/ConAALEBD?IDDOC=32002&menu=2 |archive-date=27 May 2011 }}</ref> [[Academia Puertorriqueña de la Lengua Española]] í Púertó Ríkó (1955),<ref>{{cite web | url= http://www.academiapr.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=35&Itemid=61 | title= Academia Puertorriqueña de la Lengua Española | location= Puerto Rico | access-date= 5 February 2011 | archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20100824060727/http://www.academiapr.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=35&Itemid=61 | archive-date= 24 August 2010 | url-status= live }}</ref> [[North American Academy of the Spanish Language]] í Bandaríkjunum (1973)<ref>{{cite web | url= http://www.anle.us/ | title= Academia Norteamericana de la Lengua Española | location= United States | access-date= 5 February 2011 | archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20110212025419/http://anle.us/ | archive-date= 12 February 2011 | url-status= live }}</ref> og [[Academia Ecuatoguineana de la Lengua Española]] í Miðbaugs-Gíneu (2016).<ref>{{cite web | url= http://www.asale.org/academias/academia-ecuatoguineana-de-la-lengua-espanola | title= Academia Ecuatoguineana de la Lengua Española | location= Equatorial Guinea | access-date= 5 February 2016 | archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20160331073309/http://www.asale.org/academias/academia-ecuatoguineana-de-la-lengua-espanola | archive-date= 31 March 2016 | url-status= live }}</ref>
 
=== Cervantes-stofnunin ===
[[File:Banco Español del Río de la Plata (Madrid) 05.jpg|thumb|upright|Höfuðstöðvar Cervantes-stofnunarinnar í Madríd.]]
[[Cervantes-stofnunin]] ({{lang|es|Instituto Cervantes}}) er sjálfseignarstofnun sem starfar á heimsvísu, búin til af spænsku ríkisstjórninni árið 1991. Stofnunin er með aðsetur í 20 löndum með 75 miðstöðvar sem eiga að breiða út spænska og spænsk-ameríska menningu, tungumál og bókmenntir. Markmið stofnunarinnar eru að efla menntun, rannsóknir og notkun spænsku sem annars máls, styðja við þróun spænskukennslu og styrkja útbreiðslu spænskrar og spænsk-amerískrar menningar í löndum þar sem spænska er ekki töluð. Samkvæmt skýrslu stofnunarinnar frá 2015 var fjöldi spænskumælandi á heimsvísu áætlaður 559 milljónir. Ársskýrsla stofnunarinnar frá 2018 taldi 577 spænskumælandi um allan heim. Meðal heimilda skýrslunnar er [[Manntalsstofnun Bandaríkjanna]] sem áætlar að fjöldi spænskumælandi Bandaríkjamanna muni ná 138 milljónum árið 2050 og að í Bandaríkjunum verði mesti fjöldi spænskumælandi fólks af öllum löndum heims, þar sem um þriðjungur íbúa hafi spænsku að móðurmáli.<ref>Stephen Burgen, [https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/jun/29/us-second-biggest-spanish-speaking-country US now has more Spanish speakers than Spain – only Mexico has more] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181123045244/https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/jun/29/us-second-biggest-spanish-speaking-country |date=23 November 2018 }}, US News, 29 June 2015.</ref>
 
== Tilvísanir ==
48.055

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