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Á síðustu öld hefur mönnum tekist að kanna jaðarsvæði eins og Suðurskautslandið, [[hafdjúpin]] og [[geimur|geiminn]].<ref name=":11">{{cite journal| vauthors = Heim BE |year=1990–1991 |title=Exploring the Last Frontiers for Mineral Resources: A Comparison of International Law Regarding the Deep Seabed, Outer Space, and Antarctica|url=https://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/vantl23&id=831&div=&collection=|journal=Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law|volume=23|page=819}}</ref> Mannabyggð á þessum erfiðu svæðum er mjög takmarkandi og dýr, oftast tímabundin og sett upp í vísindalegum eða hernaðarlegum tilgangi, eða fyrir ábatasaman iðnað.<ref name=":11" /> Menn hafa heimsótt [[Tunglið]] og kannað aðra hnetti með manngerðum sjálfstýrðum [[geimfar|geimförum]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/missions/mars-science-laboratory-curiosity-rover-msl/ |title=Mission to Mars: Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity Rover |publisher=Jet Propulsion Laboratory |access-date=26. ágúst 2015 |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150818014850/http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/missions/mars-science-laboratory-curiosity-rover-msl |archive-date=18. ágúst 2015 }}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Rosetta/Touchdown!_Rosetta_s_Philae_probe_lands_on_comet |title=Touchdown! Rosetta's Philae probe lands on comet |date=12. nóvember 2014 |publisher=European Space Agency |access-date=26. ágúst 2015 |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150822055902/http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Rosetta/Touchdown!_Rosetta_s_Philae_probe_lands_on_comet |archive-date=22. ágúst 2015 }}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=https://science.nasa.gov/missions/near/ |title=NEAR-Shoemaker |publisher=NASA |access-date=26. ágúst 2015 |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150826173835/http://science.nasa.gov/missions/near/ |archive-date=26. ágúst 2015 }}</ref> Frá aldamótunum 2000 hefur verið stöðug mannabyggð í geimnum, í [[Alþjóðlega geimstöðin|Alþjóðlegu geimstöðinni]].<ref name="urlNASA">{{cite web | vauthors = Kraft R |title=JSC celebrates ten years of continuous human presence aboard the International Space Station |url=http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/jscfeatures/articles/000000945.html |publisher=[[Johnson Space Center]] |work=JSC Features |date=11. desember 2010 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120216221409/http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/jscfeatures/articles/000000945.html |archive-date=16. febrúar 2012 |access-date=13. febrúar 2012 }}</ref>
 
Áætlað er að fjöldi manna þegar landbúnaður kom fram á sjónarsviðið um 10.000 f.o.t. hafi verið milli 1 milljón og 15 milljónir.<ref>{{cite book| vauthors = Tellier LN |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=cXuCjDbxC1YC&pg=PA26|title=Urban world history: an economic and geographical perspective|date=2009|isbn=978-2-7605-1588-8|page=26}}</ref><ref>{{cite book | vauthors = Thomlinson R |title=Demographic problems; controversy over population control. | url = https://archive.org/details/demographicprobl0000thom_1975 |date= 1975 | edition = 2nd |publisher=Dickenson Pub. Co |location= Ecino, California |isbn=978-0-8221-0166-6}}</ref> Milli 50 og 60 milljónir manna bjuggu í [[Rómaveldi]] á 4. öld.<ref>{{cite web| vauthors = Harl KW |date=1998|title=Population estimates of the Roman Empire|url=http://www.tulane.edu/~august/H303/handouts/Population.htm|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160507061006/http://www.tulane.edu/~august/H303/handouts/Population.htm|archive-date=2016-05-07|access-date=8. desember 2012|publisher=Tulane.edu}}</ref> [[Kýlapest]], sem kemur fyrst fyrir í heimildum frá 6. öld, minnkaði mannfjöldann um helming, og í [[Svartidauði|Svartadauða]] létust 75-200 milljónir í [[Evrasía|Evrasíu]] og [[Norður-Afríka|Norður-Afríku]].<ref>{{cite journal | vauthors = Zietz BP, Dunkelberg H | title = The history of the plague and the research on the causative agent Yersinia pestis | journal = International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health | volume = 207 | issue = 2 | pages = 165–78 | date = febrúar 2004 | pmid = 15031959 | doi = 10.1078/1438-4639-00259 | pmc = 7128933 }}</ref> Talið er að mannfjöldinn hafi náð 1 milljarði árið 1800. Síðan þá hefur hann aukist með veldisvexti. Hann náði 2 milljörðum árið 1930 og þremur árið 1960, fjórum árið 1975, fimm árið 1987 og sex milljörðum árið 1999.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/411162.stm |access-date=5. febrúar 2008 |work=BBC News |title=World's population reaches six billion |date=5 August 1999 |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080415053354/http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/411162.stm |archive-date=15. apríl 2008 }}</ref> Mannfjöldinn fór yfir 7 milljarða árið 2011 og árið 2020 voru 7,8 milljarðar manna á Jörðinni.<ref name=":0">{{cite web|title=World Population: 2020 Overview {{!}} YaleGlobal Online|url=https://yaleglobal.yale.edu/content/world-population-2020-overview|access-date=2021-04-18|website=yaleglobal.yale.edu}}</ref> Samanlagður [[lífmassi]] kolefnis alls fólks á Jörðinni árið 2018 var áætlaður 60 milljón tonn, um tíu sinnum meiri en lífmassi allra villtra dýra.<ref>{{cite journal | vauthors = Bar-On YM, Phillips R, Milo R | title = The biomass distribution on Earth | journal = Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | volume = 115 | issue = 25 | pages = 6506–6511 | date = júní 2018 | pmid = 29784790 | pmc = 6016768 | doi = 10.1073/pnas.1711842115 | doi-access = free }}</ref>
 
Árið 2018 bjuggu 4,2 milljarðar manna (55%) í þéttbýli, miðað við 751 milljón árið 1950.<ref name=":12">{{cite web|date=2018-05-16|title=68% of the world population projected to live in urban areas by 2050, says UN | work = United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) |url=https://www.un.org/development/desa/en/news/population/2018-revision-of-world-urbanization-prospects.html|access-date=2021-04-18 |language=en-US}}</ref> Þéttbýlustu svæðin er að finna í Norður-Ameríku (82%), Suður-Ameríku (81%), Evrópu (74%) og Eyjaálfu (68%), en um 90% af dreifbýlisbúum heims búa í Afriku og Asíu.<ref name=":12" /> Líf í borgum felur í sér ýmis konar áskoranir eins og mengun og glæpi,<ref>{{cite book | vauthors = Duhart DT | date = October 2000 | title = Urban, Suburban, and Rural Victimization, 1993–98 | publisher = U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics | access-date = 1. október 2006 | url = https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/usrv98.pdf }}</ref> sérstaklega í miðborgum og [[fátækrahverfi|fátækrahverfum]]. Áætlað er að bæði heildarmannfjöldinn og hlutfall íbúa í þéttbýli muni aukast mikið á næstu áratugum.<ref name=UN-pop-all>{{cite web |title=World Urbanization Prospects, the 2011 Revision |url=http://esa.un.org/unup/CD-ROM/Urban-Rural-Population.htm |work=Population Division, United Nations |access-date=4. júlí 2013 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130709002731/http://esa.un.org/unup/CD-ROM/Urban-Rural-Population.htm |archive-date=9 July 2013 }}</ref> Menn hafa mjög mikil [[umhverfisáhrif]]. Þeir eru [[topprándýr]] og eru sjaldan fæða annarra rándýra.<ref name="pmid24497513">{{cite journal | vauthors = Roopnarine PD | title = Humans are apex predators | journal = Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | volume = 111 | issue = 9 | pages = E796 | date = mars 2014 | pmid = 24497513 | pmc = 3948303 | doi = 10.1073/pnas.1323645111 | bibcode = 2014PNAS..111E.796R | doi-access = free }}</ref> [[Mannfjöldaþróun]], [[iðnvæðing]], [[landbúnaður]], [[ofneysla]] og brennsla [[jarðefniseldsneyti]]s hafa leitt til [[umhverfisspjöll|umhverfisspjalla]] sem hafa meðal annars drifið áfram yfirstandandi [[fjöldaútdauði|fjöldaútdauða]] annarra lífvera.<ref name="Stokstad">{{cite web|url=https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/05/landmark-analysis-documents-alarming-global-decline-nature|title=Landmark analysis documents the alarming global decline of nature| vauthors = Stokstad E |date=5. mai 2019|website=[[Science (journal)|Science]]|publisher=[[American Association for the Advancement of Science|AAAS]]|language=en|access-date=9. maí 2021|quote="For the first time at a global scale, the report has ranked the causes of damage. Topping the list, changes in land use—principally agriculture—that have destroyed habitat. Second, hunting and other kinds of exploitation. These are followed by climate change, pollution, and invasive species, which are being spread by trade and other activities. Climate change will likely overtake the other threats in the next decades, the authors note. Driving these threats are the growing human population, which has doubled since 1970 to 7.6 billion, and consumption. (Per capita of use of materials is up 15% over the past 5 decades.)"}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|vauthors=Pimm S, Raven P, Peterson A, Sekercioglu CH, Ehrlich PR|date=July 2006|title=Human impacts on the rates of recent, present, and future bird extinctions|journal=Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|volume=103|issue=29|pages=10941–6|bibcode=2006PNAS..10310941P|doi=10.1073/pnas.0604181103|pmc=1544153|pmid=16829570|doi-access=free}}* {{cite journal|vauthors=Barnosky AD, Koch PL, Feranec RS, Wing SL, Shabel AB|date=October 2004|title=Assessing the causes of late Pleistocene extinctions on the continents|journal=Science|volume=306|issue=5693|pages=70–5|bibcode=2004Sci...306...70B|citeseerx=10.1.1.574.332|doi=10.1126/science.1101476|pmid=15459379|s2cid=36156087}}</ref> Menn eru meginástæða núverandi [[loftslagsbreytingar|loftslagsbreytinga]]<ref>{{cite web|title=Climate Change 2001: Working Group I: The Scientific Basis|url=http://www.grida.no/climate/ipcc_tar/wg1/007.htm|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070601014140/http://www.grida.no/climate/ipcc_tar/wg1/007.htm|archive-date=1. júní 2007|access-date=30. maí 2007|publisher=grida.no/}}</ref> sem gætu hraðað [[Hólósenútdauðinn|Hólósenútdauðanum]].<ref>{{cite journal|vauthors=Lewis OT|date=janúar 2006|title=Climate change, species-area curves and the extinction crisis|journal=Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences|volume=361|issue=1465|pages=163–71|doi=10.1098/rstb.2005.1712|pmc=1831839|pmid=16553315}}</ref><ref name="Stokstad"/>