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| 55 / 69
| Italian. Initiated an alliance of European Christian powers to partake in the war with the Ottoman Empire known as [[Long War (1591–1606)|The Long War]] (1595). Convened the [[Congregatio de Auxiliis]] which addressed doctrinal disputes between the [[Dominican Order|Dominicans]] and [[Society of Jesus|Jesuits]] regarding free will and divine grace.<ref name="Blunt1874">{{cite book|author=John Henry Blunt|authorlink=John Henry Blunt|title=Dictionary of Sects, Heresies, Ecclesiastical Parties, and Schools of Religious Thought|chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=z-gCAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA234|accessdate=11 August 2012|year=1874|publisher=Rivingtons|pages=234–240|chapter=Jansenists}}</ref>
}}
{{pope list end}}
 
==== 17th century ====
 
{{pope list begin |title=Popes of the 17th century}}
{{pope list item
| 232<br>[[File:Medici popes.svg|40px]]
| [[Papal conclave, March 1605|1 April 1605]] –<br>27 April 1605<br>{{small|({{Age in years and days|1605|04|01|1605|04|27}})}}<br>{{small|({{Age in days|1605|04|01|1605|04|27}})}}
| [[File:Leo XI 2.jpg|80px]]
| '''[[Pope Leo XI|Leo XI]]'''<br>{{small|Papa '''LEO''' Undecimus}}
| Alessandro Ottaviano de' [[Medici]]
| 2 June 1535 Florence, [[Duchy of Florence]]
| 69 / 69
| Italian. The nephew of [[Leo X]]. Called "Papa Lampo" (Lightning Pope) for his brief pontificate.
}}
{{pope list item
| 233<br>[[File:C o a Paulo V.svg|40px]]
| [[Papal conclave, May 1605|16 May 1605]] –<br>28 January 1621<br>{{small|({{Age in years and days|1605|05|16|1621|01|28}})}}<br>{{small|({{Age in days|1605|05|16|1621|01|28}})}}
| [[File:PaoloHasekura.jpg|80px]]
| '''[[Pope Paul V|Paul V]]'''<br>{{small|Papa '''PAVLVS''' Quintus}}
| Camillo [[Borghese]]
| 17 September 1550 Rome, Lazio, Papal States
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| Motto: {{lang|la|Absit nisi in te gloriari}} {{small|("May it be absent, except to glory in you")}}<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.gcatholic.org/hierarchy/pope/PL5.htm|title=Pope Alexander VII (1655–1667)|publisher=GCatholic|accessdate=1 April 2014}}</ref>
Italian. Known for various building projects which included the facade of [[St Peter's Basilica]]. Established the [[Bank of the Holy Spirit]] (1605); restored the [[Aqua Traiana]].
}}
{{pope list item
| 234<br>[[File:C o a Gregorio XV.svg|40px]]
| [[Papal conclave, 1621|9 February 1621]] –<br>8 July 1623<br>{{small|({{Age in years and days|1621|02|09|1623|07|08}})}}<br>{{small|({{Age in days|1621|02|09|1623|07|08}})}}
| [[File:Pope Gregory XV.jpg|80px]]
| '''[[Pope Gregory XV|Gregory XV]]'''<br>{{small|Papa '''GREGORIVS''' Quintus Decimus}}
| Alessandro Ludovisi
| 9 January 1554 Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Papal States
| 67 / 69
| Italian. Established the [[Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith]] (1622). Issued the bull ''Aeterni Patris'' (1621) which imposed conclaves to be by secret ballot. Issued the constitution ''Omnipotentis Dei'' against magicians and witches (1623).
}}
{{pope list item
| 235<br>[[File:C o a Urbano VIII.svg|40px]]
| [[Papal conclave, 1623|6 August 1623]] –<br>29 July 1644<br>{{small|({{Age in years and days|1623|08|06|1644|07|29}})}}<br>{{small|({{Age in days|1623|08|06|1644|07|29}})}}
| [[File:Gian Lorenzo Bernini - Portrait d'Urbain VIII.jpg|80px]]
| '''[[Pope Urban VIII|Urban VIII]]'''<br>{{small|Papa '''VRBANVS''' Octavus}}
| Maffeo [[Barberini]]
| 5 April 1568 Florence, [[Grand Duchy of Tuscany]]
| 55 / 76
| Italian. Trial against [[Galileo Galilei]]. The last pope to expand papal territory by force of arms. Issued a 1624 bill that made the use of tobacco in holy places punishable by excommunication.
}}
{{pope list item
| 236<br>[[File:C o a Innocenzo X.svg|40px]]
| [[Papal conclave, 1644|15 September 1644]] –<br>7 January 1655<br>{{small|({{Age in years and days|1644|09|15|1655|01|07}})}}<br>{{small|({{Age in days|1644|09|15|1655|01|07}})}}
| [[File:Inocencio X, Velazquez.jpg|80px]]
| '''[[Pope Innocent X|Innocent X]]'''<br>{{small|Papa '''INNOCENTIVS''' Decimus}}
| Giovanni Battista [[Pamphilj]]
| 6 May 1574 Rome, Lazio, Papal States
| 70 / 80
| Motto: {{lang|la|Alleviatæ sunt aquæ super terram}} {{small|("Water on earth")}}<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.gcatholic.org/hierarchy/pope/I10.htm|title=Pope Innocent X (1644–1655)|accessdate=3 August 2014}}</ref>
Italian. The great-great-great-grandson of [[Alexander VI]]. Erected the [[Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi]] in [[Piazza Navona]]. Promulgated the apostolic constitution ''[[Cum occasione]]'' (1653) which condemned five doctrines of [[Jansenism]] as [[heresy]].
}}
{{pope list item
| 237<br>[[File:C o a Alessandro VII.svg|40px]]
| [[Papal conclave, 1655|7 April 1655]] –<br>22 May 1667<br>{{small|({{Age in years and days|1655|04|07|1667|05|22}})}}<br>{{small|({{Age in days|1655|04|07|1667|05|22}})}}
| [[File:Alexander VII.jpg|80px]]
| '''[[Pope Alexander VII|Alexander VII]]'''<br>{{small|Papa '''ALEXANDER''' Septimus}}
| Fabio [[House of Chigi|Chigi]]
| 13 February 1599 Siena, [[Grand Duchy of Tuscany]]
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| Italian. Great-nephew of [[Paul V]]. Commissioned [[St. Peter's Square]]. Issued the constitution ''Sollicitudo Omnium Ecclesiarum'' that set the doctrine of the [[Immaculate Conception]] almost identical to that of [[Pope Pius IX|Pius IX]] centuries later.
}}
{{pope list item
| 238<br>[[File:C o a Clemente IX.svg|40px]]
| [[Papal conclave, 1667|20 June 1667]] –<br>9 December 1669<br>{{small|({{Age in years and days|1667|06|20|1669|12|09}})}}<br>{{small|({{Age in days|1667|06|20|1669|12|09}})}}
| [[File:Clemente IX.jpg|80px]]
| '''[[Pope Clement IX|Clement IX]]'''<br>{{small|Papa '''CLEMENS''' Nonus}}
| Giulio Rospigliosi
| 28 January 1600 [[Pistoia]], Grand Duchy of Tuscany
| 67 / 69
| Motto: {{lang|la|Aliis non sibi Clemens}} {{small|("Clement to others, not to himself")}}<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.gcatholic.org/hierarchy/pope/C09.htm|title=Pope Clement IX (1667–1669)|accessdate=3 August 2014}}</ref>
Italian. Mediated in the [[Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle (1668)|peace of Aachen]] (1668).
}}
{{pope list item
| 239<br>[[File:C o a Clemente X.svg|40px]]
| [[Papal conclave, 1669-70|29 April 1670]] –<br>22 July 1676<br>{{small|({{Age in years and days|1670|04|29|1676|07|22}})}}<br>{{small|({{Age in days|1670|04|29|1676|07|22}})}}
| [[File:Alexander VII, 1599-1667, påve (Giovanni Battista (Baciccio) Gaulli) - Nationalmuseum - 19080.tif|80px]]
| '''[[Pope Clement X|Clement X]]'''<br>{{small|Papa '''CLEMENS''' Decimus}}
| Emilio Bonaventura Altieri
| 13 July 1590 Rome, Lazio, Papal States
| 79 / 86
| Motto: {{lang|la|Bonum auget malum minuit}} {{small|("He increases good and diminishes evil")}}<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.gcatholic.org/hierarchy/pope/C10.htm|title=Pope Clement X (1670–1676)|accessdate=3 August 2014}}</ref>
Italian. Canonized the first saint from the Americas: St. [[Rose of Lima]] (1671). Decorated the bridge of Sant' Angelo with the ten statues of angels and added one of the two fountains that adorn the piazza of St. Peter's. Established regulations for the removal of relics of saints from cemeteries.
}}
{{pope list item
| 240<br>[[File:C o a Innocenzo XI.svg|40px]]
| [[Papal conclave, 1676|21 September 1676]] –<br>12 August 1689<br>{{small|({{Age in years and days|1676|09|21|1689|08|12}})}}<br>{{small|({{Age in days|1676|09|21|1689|08|12}})}}
| [[File:Inocencius XI.jpg|80px]]
| Bl. '''[[Pope Innocent XI|Innocent XI]]'''<br>{{small|Papa '''INNOCENTIVS''' Undecimus}}
| Benedetto Odescalchi
| 16 May 1611 [[Como]], [[Lombardy]], Duchy of Milan
| 65 / 78
| Motto: {{lang|la|Avarus non Implebitur}} {{small|("The covetous man is not satisfied")}}<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.gcatholic.org/hierarchy/pope/I11.htm|title=Pope Innocent XI (1676–1689)|accessdate=3 August 2014}}</ref>
Italian. Condemned the [[doctrine of mental reservation]] (1679) and initiated the [[Holy League (1684)|Holy League]]. Extended the [[Holy Name of Mary]] as a universal feast (1684). Admired for positive contributions to catechesis.
}}
{{pope list item
| 241<br>[[File:C o a Alessandro VIII.svg|40px]]
| [[Papal conclave, 1689|6 October 1689]] –<br>1 February 1691<br>{{small|({{Age in years and days|1689|10|06|1691|02|01}})}}<br>{{small|({{Age in days|1689|10|06|1691|02|01}})}}
| [[File:Alexander VIII 1.jpg|80px]]
| '''[[Pope Alexander VIII|Alexander VIII]]'''<br>{{small|Papa '''ALEXANDER''' Octavus}}
| Pietro Vito Ottoboni
| 22 April 1610 Venice, Republic of Venice
| 79 / 80
| Italian. Condemned the so-called [[philosophical sin]] (1690).
}}
{{pope list item
| 242<br>[[File:C o a Innocenzo XII.svg|40px]]
| [[Papal conclave, 1691|12 July 1691]] –<br>27 September 1700<br>{{small|({{Age in years and days|1691|07|12|1700|09|27}})}}<br>{{small|({{Age in days|1691|07|12|1700|09|27}})}}
| [[File:Pope Innocent XII.PNG|80px]]
| '''[[Pope Innocent XII|Innocent XII]]'''<br>{{small|Papa '''INNOCENTIVS''' Duodecimus}}
| Antonio Pignatelli, [[Secular Franciscan Order|O.F.S]]
| 13 March 1615 [[Spinazzola]], [[Apulia]], Kingdom of Naples
| 76 / 85
| Italian. Issued the bull ''[[Romanum decet Pontificem]]'' to stop nepotism (1692). Erected various charitable and educational institutions.
}}
{{pope list end}}
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